A collection of essays I’ve written, and some 19th century sources now in the public domain.

Medieval Agriculture

Modern life is sufficiently complex that most of us are distanced from food production. This was not the case in the medieval period, when 90-95% of the population lived in villages, and food preservation methods were limited. These essays and articles on medieval agriculture and estate management help – I hope – to shed some light on life before air freight and refrigeration.

The Medieval Farming Year

Medieval Treatises

Victorian translations of medieval estate management treatises.

Walter of Henley’s Husbandry


The Anonymous Husbandry

The Rules of Robert Grosseteste

If you knew your history then you would know where you’re coming from. Then you would not have to ask me, ‘Who the hell do I think I am.'”

Bob Marley, Buffalo Soldier

The past is a foreign country. They do things differently there.”

L.P. Hartley, The Go-Between

The Medieval Margins

Medieval social and governance structures stressed conformity. Everyone knew their place and their role – at least that’s the medieval ideal. I’m fascinated by the people who tested the limits, who chose or were forced to live on the margins of medieval society, or who until the last few decades have had no place in history books.

Black Knights: Arabs, Moors and Africans in Medieval England

Homosexuality in Medieval Europe